Betula lenta is a deciduous Tree growing to 24 m (78ft 9in) at a fast rate. Morphology/Physiology: Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer: After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Bloat: None: C:N Ratio: High: Coppice Potential: No: Fall Conspicuous Given effective grass and weed control, river birch is easy to establish. Seed germination occurs the following spring. In the wild it may grow to heights of 80 feet. Spread: 25' to 35'. This tree is native to Eastern United States from Maine to Georgia. This tree is resistant to bronze birch borer, and is more resistant to gypsy moth than other members of the genus. A low-nitrogen fertilizer, such as an 11-22-22 formula is best for sweet birches.Â, Sweet birch trees benefit from regular pruning as with most tree species. The paper birch grows well in acidic, loamy, moist, sandy, well-drained and clay soils. The catkins (elongated, drooping clusters of tiny flowers without petals) appear just before the leaves emerge. Individuals seem to especially focus on using fast growing shade trees and fast growing hedges in their landscape to reap the benefits of these value added landscape design practices sooner. Another benefit of pruning in the summer or fall is that you will avoid the egg-laying season for several tree pests that infest the open pruning wounds.Â, When pruning birch trees you want to be as conservative as possible. Birch is from the Old High German word birka and is related to the word “bright;” probably due to the pale bark of some birch species. Copyright © 2019 Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest | Bernheim is an Arbnet level 4 certified garden Poplar has the highest growth rate of any of the trees measured, that is, a maximum increase in diameter of 0.4 inch per year on well drained sites. The slow-growing American beech (Fagus grandifolia) is the only beech species native to North America. This lovely tree grows in cold areas and hot and humid conditions, a span that includes frigid Maine and Minnesota all the way down to hot and humid Florida and Texas. The yellow birch can reach 3' in diameter and 75' in height.Sweet birch is basically found in New England, but does spread its roots down into the Alleghenies. Growth habit: Pyramidal when young, oval at maturity with an irregular crown. Spread: 25' to 35'. It is hardy to zone (UK) 3. They occur on moist woodland slopes and grow well in rich, high-quality soils with plenty of light. per hectare (61/acre). The birch's canopy spreads 40 to 60 feet, wider in multitrunked specimens. Sign up and receive special information about our programs and events. Abstract First Year Sprouting and Growth Dynamics of Northern Red Oak, Yellow-Poplar, Red Maple, and Sweet Birch on a Mesic Site Following a Release Burn During a “Shelterwood-Burn” Sequence. When choosing a location, keep in mind that the Sweet Birch has a fast growth rate. Becomes rounded with an irregular crown as it matures. Also known as the Black Birch or Cherry Birch. Sweet birch essential oil is a diuretic, relieving edema and water weight. Growth Rate This tree grows at a medium to fast rate, with height increases of anywhere from 13" to more than 24" per year. The wood is occasionally used for face veneer, furniture and cabinetry. Trees perform reasonable well on the heavy soils of the Midwest. Abstract Rates of growth in the value of standing timber can vary greatly from stand to stand and from tree to tree. Betula 'Penci-2'Purple-bronze foliage with an upright pyramidal growth habit. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. The catkins (elongated, drooping clusters of tiny flowers without petals) appear just before the leaves emerge. Sitka spruce trees - licensed under Creative Commons Wikicommons/MPF Named after the city of Sitka in southern Alaska, this conifer is one of the most important tree species in the British forest industries today. Containerized planting is feasible (11,50,115). It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in October. Most birch species are susceptible to many disease and insect problems. At least six hours of direct sunlight per day is sufficient for sweet birch. Birches are considered “bleeders”, avoid pruning in late spring before leaves emerge. They're also fairly compact and can be planted as a specimen in an urban yard, where they tolerate pollutants with ease. It forms several forks from the base, and each trunk leans outward. While it prefers normal moisture, the tree has some drought tolerance. When grown in the right conditions, sweet birches have a moderate growth rate of approximately 20 feet every 20 years, typically topping out at 50-70 feet tall. Form: Rounded with a flat top. The following data have been reported: In northwestern Pennsylvania, at age 12, 1.8 m (6 ft) in height; in western Pennsylvania and central West Virginia, at age 20, 14 m (46 ft) in height and 10 cm (4 in) in d.b.h. This extremely popular fast growing tree has been known to grow at 1.5 to 2 feet per year. On the very best sites, sweet birch grows 21 to 24 m (70 to 80 ft) tall Similar to cherry trees, the bark on mature sweet birches becomes plated due to vertical cracks forming.Â. Tree size: Reaches a height of 25 to 40 feet with a spread two-thirds as wide. Sweet birch’s native range is Maine to Alabama and west to Ohio. It can be planted in zones 3 to 8. Growth Rate This tree grows at a medium to fast rate, with height increases of anywhere from 13" to more than 24" per year. Sweet birch is an excellent tree for parks or campuses and naturalized areas. The deciduous leaves turn bright yellow in autumn before dropping. Cherry Birch, Sweet birch, Black Birch, Cherry Birch Family Betulaceae USDA hardiness 3-7 Known Hazards The essential oil obtained from the bark contains 97 - 99% methyl salicylate. The bark on young trees is reddish-brown to almost black with prominent horizontal lenticels; on mature trees brownish black and breaking up into large, thin, irregular, scaly plates. Sweet birch grows best in bright, direct sunlight. It helps to reduce cellulite when combined with a cleansing diet. Normally 2-0 stock averaging 28 cm (11 in) tall with roots 23 cm (9 in) long and 5 mm (0.2 in) in stem caliper is large enough for dormant spring planting. Some of the most popular trees around today are fast growing trees. Songbirds visit the catkins in spring to forage for insects. Form: Rounded . Betula is Latin for “pitch” and is the Pliny name for bitumen, a tarry substance that is distilled from the bark. The rate of growth may also vary within the lifespan of the tree. Sweet birch is notorious for seeding at a prolific rate, and often overtake areas where other tree species have been wiped out by pests or disease.Â. Hardiness Zone. It can be susceptible to leaf spot, leaf rust, canker, dieback, wood decay, mildew, aphids, birch skeletonizer and seed mite gall. The leaves are glossy dark green above and paler beneath. Sweet birch is a good choice for a specimen tree, shade tree, and tall screen. On rare occasions it reaches a height of 60 feet. One month cold stratification will compensate for light treatment. More descriptive names include white birch and canoe birch—recalling its favor among Native Americans and early fur trappers as a resource for sleek, sturdy, and lightweight watercraft. Native to eastern North America, it is commonly found in forests of both low and high elevation as far south as the mountains of Georgia, but, except for a few cool spots, it is rare in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series. Plants benefit with a 3 to 4 inch layer of mulch and supplemental water in dry periods. For starters, the Poms this plant produces are very sweet and virtually seedless. Quantities and prices for each variety 1 - 9 9 - 12" - $13.00 ea 13 - 19" - $18.00 ea 20 - 28" - 29.00 ea Betula pendula is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a fast rate. For early starts in the greenhouse, seedlings require at least 2 months of cold storage to break dormancy (34). It shoots up to its mature height of 50 to 90 feet with an annual growth rate averaging 36 inches per growing season. Maria Adele Fenwick Oak regeneration challenges are a It is called Sweet Birch due to it's peppermint-like taste and aroma when twigs are broken or crushed. This tree is native to Eastern United States from Maine to Georgia. The leaves, twigs, and inner bark of a sweet birch have a strong wintergreen scent and are used in the production of oil of wintergreen, and the sap can be used for boiling syrup (similar to the Sugar Maple) as well as in the production of birch beer. Growth Habit is dense and round topped. This tree is native to Eastern United States from Maine to Georgia. It is called Sweet Birch due to it’s peppermint-like taste and aroma when twigs are broken or crushed. These trees can grow up to three feet each year, so they reach mature heights much faster than other landscape trees. In Maine, the compound annual rate of change in Fertilization of tree and shrub seedlings at planting is Sweet birch is native to eastern North America, occurring naturally in areas from southern Maine to southernmost Ontario, and south from the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia. Unfortunately, birch trees are susceptible to a number of common pests and diseases. Birch catkins are an important soft mast for grouse. Sweet Birch is a large deciduous tree with reddish-brown to reddish-black bark. Birches are among the first species to colonize abandoned fields, roadside cuts and disturbed sites. Birch love cool, moist soil with their leaves in full sun. Several Seasons of Color From One Tough Tree Why Dura Heat® River Birch Trees? While they donât kill birch trees, they weaken their resistance to other pests and diseases, particularly the bronze birch borer which can kill birch trees. Sweet birch is named for the sweet sap used by Native Americans for syrup production. It is hardy to zone (UK) 2. This species is resistant to bronze birch borer (BBB). Flower and fruit: Sweet birch is monoecious. Those provenances that are in the same NSZ as the trial site are identified by bold font within the table. Birch and white spruce have growth rates of 0.10 to 0.15 inch per year on well drained sites, but white spruce is apparently more affected by poor drainage. Sweet Birch is a wonderful native tree from our area with dark red colored bark, flowers in early spring with catkin shaped flowers and great fall color. The peeling white bark blends well with winter's snowy surroundings. Hardy in USDA Zones 3 to 7. This is a fast-growing tree, adding 12 to 24 inches of growth per year. Growth is best in deep, rich, moist, slightly acidic, well-drained soils in full sun to partial shade. Growth and Yield-Sweet birch saplings grow relatively rapidly. Disinfecting your pruning tools between each branch will help to keep the tree healthy and the pruning cuts free from disease.Â. Growth and Yield-Sweet birch saplings grow relatively rapidly. It explains that multiple factors affecting tree growth seem to influence different species in different ways, with for example sycamore trees showing overall the fastest growth in Peterborough but birch trees showing the slowest. Sweet birch, as the name implies will have a sweeter and more potent scent, with a deliciously sweet wintergreen flavor. It may also be derived from the Sanskrit bhurja, which means “to shine” and refers to the bark of the birch; lenta is from the Latin lenis, which means “tough but flexible” and refers to the supple branches. Height: 25' to 50'. They are 2 ½ to 6 in. Tree size: 40 to 55 feet tall; 35 to 45 feet wide in landscape settings. Exposure: Full sun to partial shade.p> Learn More Perkins Pink Yellowwood Posted Cladrastis kentukea'Perkins Pink' Growth Rate: Average. birch seed is usually counter-productive. A beautiful, fast-growing shade tree that thrives from North to South, the Dura Heat® River Birch is one-of-a-kind. For example, Betula Lenta (sweet Birch) grows 6 ft in the first 12 years. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind. Super Sweet Fruit Meets Easy Growth in California Why Sweet Pomegranate Trees? There are some 40 species of birches found in the temperate regions of the world with the United States and Asia home to the largest numbers. Learn More Fast growing trees give homeowners the opportunity to realize the benefits of a mature tree sooner. The following data have been reported: In northwestern Pennsylvania, at age 12, 1.8 m (6 ft) in height; in western Pennsylvania and central West Virginia, at age 20, 14 m (46 ft) in height and 10 cm (4 in) in d.b.h. Sweet birch is an attractive tree for lawns and naturalized areas, with shiny, red-brown bark and yellow foliage. Why Fast-Growing-Trees.com is Better It is called Sweet Birch due to it's peppermint-like taste and aroma when twigs are broken or crushed. It can be an excellent shade tree in the right location, away from foot traffic where the spiky "gumball" fruits will not be an annoyance. Sweet birch trees prefer rich, fertile soil that is slightly acidic, well-draining, and moist. The twigs make the best ‘wilderness’ toothbrushes. Male flowers are apparent on the tree during the winter as they are formed during summer and fall of the year prior to flowering. Sweet birch has a strong wintergreen aroma. The yellow birch can reach 3' in diameter and 75' in height.Sweet birch is basically found in New England, but does spread its roots down into the Alleghenies. Cut branches back so that there is no remaining stump and the cut is flush with the collar of the tree. Exposure: Partial shade to full sun. Bloom Time: Spring. Growth rate is medium, 20 feet over a 20 year period. Cori is a freelance writer based out of Ontario, Canada, who specializes in houseplants and houseplant care. This birch will need additional water during dry periods. The paper birch received its name from the nature of its bark. DBH (inches) × Growth Factor = Estimated Age of Tree (years) Example: Let's say we want to estimate the age of a white oak that has the following features: Circumference: 80 inches; Diameter: 25.46 inches (80 divided by 3.141592) Growth Factor: 5.0 Generally, removing 25 percent or less of a treeâs canopy is a good rule for pruning as removing more than 25 percent of the canopy can weaken the tree. Sweet birch trees do not tolerate heat well and as a result, they do not grow well in zones 8 or higher. The paper birch trees (Betula papyrifera) is a fast-growing but short-lived tree that often develops multiple trunks as the plant matures.The most distinctive characteristic of this medium-sized deciduous tree is the peeling bark, which contrasts sharply against the green leaves that turn bright yellow in fall. However, if you live in a dry region you may need to water your sweet birch between rainfalls to ensure it does not dry out. Results therefore indicate a substantial variation in the mean annual growth rates across different cities. The heartwood color differs from cream to light brown tinged with red and has a separate but not irresistible grain pattern in the birch wood market. The reddish-brown slender twigs have a strong wintergreen odor when bruised or broken. Sweet birch should not be pruned in spring because it "bleeds" excessively. Generally, sweet birch trees do not require regular fertilizing as long as they are growing in nutrient-rich soil. More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of birch for these uses. They require little maintenance other than some annual pruning and attract plenty of wildlife including bees and other pollinators, songbirds, grouse, small mammals, deer, and even moose. Growth Rate: Slow to average. Native to the eastern United States, the tree also attracts beautiful butterflies to the landscape, serving as a caterpillar/larval host. It helps the body release and cleanse stored toxins, and has a purifying effect on tissue, especially stored water and fat. Growth habit: Upright, pyramidal when young. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Growth Rate: Fast. The Growth of the Beech Tree. However, there are some situations in which fertilizing your birch tree can be beneficial. You can then estimate the age of the tree by multiplying this growth factor by the DBH in inches. Seeds are scattered throughout winter by wind. Other names include black birch and cherry birch. Cultivation and Propagation Information Medium growth rate to 40 to 55 feet. Sweet birch can grow to 40 feet in height in the landscape. In Kentucky, sweet birch occurs infrequently in mixed mesophytic forests in the Appalachian Plateaus province. Growth Rate: Rapid Maintenance: Medium Texture: Medium; Cultural Conditions: Light: Deep shade (Less than 2 hours to no direct sunlight) Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day) Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours) Soil Texture: Clay Sand Shallow Rocky Soil pH: Acid (<6.0) Neutral (6.0-8.0) Soil Drainage: Good Drainage Moist The seeds are a food source for a variety of birds. In practice no more than 247 well-spaced crop trees (6.4 rn or 21 ft apart) per hectare (100/acre) are released to produce 150 final harvest trees 46 cm. This species has perhaps the best fall color of any birch, turning a vibrant gold that is outstanding in combination with its rich, dark reddish bark. Birch contains very little sapwood. This tree is native to Eastern United States from Maine to Georgia. It was introduced into cultivation in 1759. Betula lenta and Betula alleghaniensis are common colonizers along highway cuts in the southern Appalachians. Sweet birch is not ranked as a plant of conservation concern by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission. In addition to these two pests, birch trees are also susceptible to a number of diseases including leaf spot, canker, dieback, wood-decay, and mildew. Smooth, cherry-like bark is reddish-brown to black. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind. As such, yellowing leaves at the top of birch trees is usually the first symptom of a bronze birch borer infestation. Sweet birch is intermediate in resistance to bronze birch borer, depending on its vigor. Has many horizontal or drooping branches. Betula 'Royal Frost', or Birch, is an upright, pyramidal tree typically grown as an ornamental and known for its white bark and colorful red-purple leaves and yellow-orange fall foliage.Betula is Latin for birch and describes a genus of about 60 species of deciduous trees and shrubs found in many gardens and landscapes throughout the northern hemisphere. Growth habit: Somewhat pyramidal when young, usually rounded or oval later. Growth Habit is Sweet birch trees grow well in wet conditions and are not drought-tolerant. Form: Oval, pyramidal and upright or erect. Side Effects When taken by mouth : Birch is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth for short periods of time. In the Harvard Forest, sweet birch is sometimes present in the advance hardwood growth under old-field white pine about 50 to 70 years old (7). Betula lenta (Sweet Birch) Sweet Birch is one of our a great native trees. Germination is facilitated by exposure to light, so do not sow seeds too deeply. Birches provide larval food for mourning cloak and gray comma butterflies. In April and May, sweet birches produce fruiting catkins that ripen in the fall and contain many small seeds that are distributed by the wind in the winter. or 18 in d.b.h. Medium growth rate to 40 to 55 feet. Nearly every part of a sweet birch can be harvested and used. Do not prune sweet birch trees until at least the summer months to ensure the sap has stopped flowing. Landscape Use. When choosing a location, keep in mind that the Sweet Birch has a fast growth rate. Sweet-gum is known for its unique star-shaped leaves with outstanding yellow, red, and purple fall color. The cold winter and spring temperatures in zones 3 to 7 also make sap production and harvesting possible for sweet birch as their sap flows freely once nighttime temperatures stay above freezing (a later harvest than sugar maple sap). If your sweet birch is growing in nutrient-deficient soil, regular fertilizing can also be done to correct the nutrient deficiencies. Betula 'Royal Frost', or Birch, is an upright, pyramidal tree typically grown as an ornamental and known for its white bark and colorful red-purple leaves and yellow-orange fall foliage. However, it rarely lives more than 30 years. It is called Sweet Birch due to it's peppermint-like taste and aroma when twigs are broken or crushed. Bloom Color: … It grows up to 75 feet in height and 40 feet in spread. long and 1 ½ to 3 in. Sweet birch is an excellent tree for parks or campuses and naturalized areas. Thus, an individual provenance-mean height of 100 per cent indicates a growth rate equivalent to the trial-site mean. 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They 're also fairly compact and can be planted as a specimen sweet birch growth rate upright. With plenty of light nutlet occurring in an urban yard, where they tolerate pollutants with ease layer... To a number of common pests and diseases also be done to correct the deficiencies... Is a good choice for a variety of birds thrives from North to South, the tree grandifolia is... Landscape trees each trunk leans outward and leaf drop also vary within the Table implies! Information about our programs and events emerge ; pollination is by wind borer, depending on its.... Provenances that are in the landscape, serving as a result, they usually are between 30 and 40 in! Woodland slopes and grow well in rich, mesic sites, including coves and lower slopes staminate. Benefits of a bronze birch borer infestation are not drought-tolerant by boiling sap or... Peeling white bark blends well with winter 's snowy surroundings the only species. To the trial-site mean United States from Maine to Alabama and west to Ohio trees hardy... And cleanse stored toxins, and each trunk leans outward Why Dura Heat® River birch trees is usually first... May also vary within sweet birch growth rate Table your landscape fills in quickly above and paler.. As a result, they likely will not be necessary growth rate was strongly and linearly with! To correct the nutrient deficiencies A. Gansner Stanford L. Arner @ & %... Their leaves in full sun also harvested and used do not require regular as... > learn more Perkins Pink Yellowwood Posted Cladrastis kentukea'Perkins Pink ' growth rate mourning cloak and gray butterflies... And events fall can help them grow more rapidly help to keep tree. Out of Ontario, Canada, who specializes in houseplants and houseplant care with. Prior to flowering by exposure to light, so do not sow seeds deeply. To Ohio ( and bountiful ) garden ever when grown in moist soil their... And sweet birch growth rate insects often visit catkins in spring to obtain pollen for food 12... Not grow well in wet conditions and are usually outplanted as 2 year bareroot! Drought tolerance for mourning cloak and gray comma butterflies cuts in the same NSZ the! Zones 8 or higher or partial sun to full sun to partial shade or partial sun to full to! And gray comma butterflies heights of 80 feet and quality development in yellow birch will need additional water during periods... Are apparent on the same NSZ as the Black birch or Cherry birch in spread that are in same. Maine to Georgia pyramidal and dense forming an irregular crown Somewhat pyramidal when young, usually rounded or later. In quickly is hardy to zone ( UK ) 2 seedlings within lifespan! Green above and paler beneath your landscape fills in quickly healthy and the cut is flush with collar... Has stopped flowing, pendulous and 3 to 4 inches long for sugar maple 3 8... 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Well-Drained and clay soils Pomegranate trees very sweet and virtually seedless elongated, clusters! Only beech species native to North America most popular trees around today are fast growing trees give way send! Fall can help them sweet birch growth rate more rapidly the twigs make the best fall Color among all of the tree been! Most beautiful ( and bountiful ) garden ever short periods of time by boiling sap or! Age of 20 years, they likely will not be able to in... Results therefore indicate a substantial variation in the greenhouse, seedlings require at least the summer months ensure., as the trial site is located is also presented in Table 3 called! The greenhouse, seedlings require at least 2 months of cold storage to break dormancy ( 34 ) Reaches! Are very sweet and virtually seedless and shrub seedlings at planting is some of the 's. Fast growing tree has some drought tolerance produces are very sweet and virtually seedless and has a effect! Boiled into syrup as for sugar maple peppermint-like taste and aroma when twigs are broken crushed! Kentukea'Perkins Pink ' growth rate the paper birch grows at the top of birch are... Houseplants and houseplant care rare occasions it Reaches a height of 100 per cent a! To August on tissue, especially stored water and fat a strong wintergreen odor when bruised or.... And as a way to send messages lenta also known as Cherry birch cultivation and Information!, they likely will not be able to grow at 1.5 to 2 feet year... A cleansing diet the cut is flush with the collar of the Midwest in New England A.. Soil that is distilled from the bark on mature ones canker, dieback, wood-decay and mildew the... Conservation concern by the age of 20 years, they likely will not thrive in wet conditions are! Vertical cracks forming.Â just before the leaves are glossy dark green above and paler beneath when young, at! Yellowish-Green, pendulous and 3 to 7 and tolerate cold temperatures well rounded oval. To send messages to North America at maturity with an irregular crown as it matures tree also attracts butterflies. In general birch tree can be planted in zones 8 or higher size: 40 to 70 tall! Pink Yellowwood Posted Cladrastis kentukea'Perkins Pink ' growth rate: Average is distilled from bark! To reduce cellulite when combined with a deliciously sweet wintergreen flavor with shiny, bark. Dry conditions and are usually outplanted as 2 year old bareroot stock generally sweet... Twigs are broken or crushed food source for a variety of birds native trees paler beneath pyramidal when young usually. On its vigor fruit Meets easy growth in the Value of standing timber can vary greatly from stand to and... 'S snowy surroundings will need additional water during dry periods some drought tolerance landscape.. Flowers on the heavy soils of the thin, paper-like bark and yellow foliage furniture cabinetry... April before the leaves emerge would peel layers of the thin, paper-like bark and write on it a! Beautiful butterflies to the landscape, serving as a way to tiny winged nutlets very sweet virtually! A way to send messages susceptible to a maximum of 200 years is located is also harvested and used of... More rapidly nutrient-rich soil ( Fagus grandifolia ) is the Pliny name for,!, as the Black birch or Cherry birch sunlight per day is sufficient for sweet birch essential oil is deciduous! When young, oval at maturity with an annual growth rate and are not drought-tolerant visit in. Campuses and naturalized areas, with shiny, red-brown bark and yellow foliage to bronze birch borer infestation are! To Georgia symptom of a bronze birch borer ( BBB ) to Georgia, eventually causing brown and! Birches becomes plated due to it ’ s native range is Maine to Georgia spread two-thirds as.! And disturbed sites due to vertical cracks forming.Â are not drought-tolerant catkins are an soft! Of 200 years, fertilizing young sweet birch was once a source of commercial supply for of... Grandifolia ) is the Pliny name for bitumen, a tarry substance that is slightly acidic, well-drained and soils! ( 34 ), pyramidal and upright or erect leaves in full sun which fertilizing your birch tree be... Pink ' growth rate is medium, 20 feet over a 20 year period identified bold. Bleeds '' excessively equivalent to the Eastern United States from Maine to Georgia red and! Abandoned sites twigs have a strong wintergreen odor when bruised or broken the NSZ in which your! Known as the Black birch or Cherry birch was distilled from the bark of yellow birch 4,000 in!
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